Tuesday, December 23, 2008

The Bagmati River originates just below the summit of Shivapuri Hill and is fed by springs and monsoon rainfall and a number of tributaries as it flows down from the Kathmandu valley floor and passes through the valley at Chovar. The river is fed by a number of tributaries originating at Mahabharat and in the Chure Range before it reaches the Terai at Karmaiya. The Bagmati River Basin, based on morphology, land-use etc., can be divided into different sub-basins viz. Upper Bagmati, Upper Middle Bagmati, Lower Middle (Terai) Bagmati and the Lower Bagmati (Terai) subbasin. The total area of the Basin within Nepalese territory is about 3638km2. In the 1991 census, the total Basin population was given as 1.6 million of which 61.5 per cent inhabit the Upper Bagmati sub-basin, where the capital city of the Kingdom of Nepal, along with other four municipalities including a number of village development committees, are situated. It is also reported that a total of 2174 out of 4271 water polluting industries operating in the country are now in operation in the Upper Bagmati sub-basin. Increasing degradation of the Bagmati Basin has been evident in recent years due to rapid population growth and expansion of the urban areas within the upper Bagmati sub-basin. Uncontrolled disposal of untreated wastewater (domestic, industrial, solid waste leachate, agricultural runoff etc.) in the rivers has far surpassed the assimilative capacity of the river. Likewise, deforestation, soil erosion and landslides have been causal factors of Basin degradation which is being increasingly threatened by damage to the infrastructure of reservoir, barrage, canals, bridges and roads from debris, tree and logs carried by the river during the monsoon season.
A comprehensive environmental study of the Bagmati River Basin was carried out by the Water and Energy Commission Secretariat using a team of experts to formulate concrete proposals for mitigation measures for:
• pollution abatement and improvement of the river water of the river thereby enhancing its assimilative capacity;
• decreasing suspended solids and siltation in river beds, canals and irrigated fields; and to
• minimizing threats to the stability of infrastructures.
The concept of Basin-wide planning for sustainable development is still new to Nepal. A development programme based on, and implemented by, administrative units could not handle and foresee the environmental impacts in the surrounding vicinity. A basin is a land unit defined by the natural barriers and the natural resources within such boundaries have intricate relationships. Exploitation of one resource has a direct impact on the other. The study was intended to evaluate the environmental conditions of the existing Bagmati River Basin in order to help in the appropriate selection of development projects for the Basin development in a sustainable manner.The study approach was initiated through the collection of secondary information. The collected information was reviewed, analyzed, interpreted and evaluated in a meaningful way to meet the study objectives. Most of the secondary information available in the limits of political boundaries was transformed into the Basin context. As the study emphasizes river pollution and the effects of erosion and sedimentation at the Karmaiya barrage site, the field study was mainly focused on these issues. However, other environmental issues were also dealt with, to some extent, with the objective of assessing their effects in terms of the sub-basins. In order to collect baseline data and information about the state of the existing environment in the Basin, separate matrices on baseline conditions and problems concerning natural resources and environment were developed and used for this purpose. The matrix on baseline conditions and problems definition regarding natural resources was designed to incorporate information about the importance, extent of current use, availability of resources for future economic development, likely future demand, conflicts and availability of alternative resources. Likewise, the matrix to collect data on baseline conditions regarding the environment included the significance, extent and trends of environment degradation, effectiveness of current control measures, extent of environmental degradation with new protection measures and the need for new environmental protection measures. A checklist on the status of data availability on the Basin was also developed and used to facilitate the study objectives.

Monday, December 22, 2008


The Pashupatinath Temple is the holiest and most sacred site in Nepal for all Hindus and is probably the most frequently visited Hindu religious site by locals. It is a goal for all Hindus to travel to this site at one point in their lives in order to be truly blessed and cleansed. There are so many myths – true or not, each person must decide for themselves – about the Pashupatinath temple and premises that if not explained, might leave some questions about the Lord Shiva who is highly worshiped here.
Lord Shiva was getting bored staying at his magnificent palace on the Kailas Mountain, and he just wanted to get away from his armies of ghosts, spirits and even his beautiful wife, Parbati. So he searched for the perfect location - not for leisure travel but to escape from his normal routine. Without telling anyone he fled to the Slesmantak Forest in the Kathmandu Valley which is surrounding the Pashupatinath temple area. One of his names was Pashupati meaning “Lord of the animals” and he disguised himself as a deer in order to not be recognized by anyone.
When Parbati and the other Gods could not find Lord Shiva at his palace, Parbati send some fellow gods to look for him. When they had no luck, Parbati went looking for him herself. She immediately recognized him in disguise and brought him home.His name as the Lord of the Animals seems suiting for the hundreds of monkeys living in the temple area and some on top of the temple. There are also cows and other animals roaming these sacred grounds. Anyone - traveler or local - should be weary about these wild animals, especially the monkeys because if harassed in anyway, they are known to fight back.
Some other interesting characters you might find around the area are the Sadhus. These are men who have given up their possessions – homes, and even clothing – to follow the lifestyle of Shiva. They are usually covered in ash and if you are lucky they will be wearing a loin-cloth, although some have given up clothing altogether. It is advisable to ask if you may take their photo, and they might ask for a small donation in return.
The temple of Pashupatinath is just one of the worshiping buildings in what is considered the “Pashupatinath Temple.” In fact there are several shrines, temples, statues, and even a cremation area in the complex.
Before the current Pashupati Temple that stands today, there was another temple dedicated to Shiva dating back to 879 AD, but was rebuilt in 1697 by King Bhupatindra Malla who added the golden-plated roof along with the silver doors, and the spectacular wooden carvings.
There is another temple, Guheshwori, which is dedicated to Satidevi, Shiva’s first wife, and the temple has a representation of the female “force.”
Another legend is: Lord Shiva once again escaped to Pashupati from Mt. Kailas, this time disguised as a hunter. Parbati followed him and disguised herself as a beautiful huntress. Shiva could not resist her and he tried to seduce her, but when he realized who she really was, he shamefully returned home. The Kirateswar Temple is said to represent this embarrassing moment in his life.
Some other attractions on these sacred grounds are the statue of Bramha – the creator, and the 6th century statue of Lord Buddha. The Rajrajeswari Temple was built in 1407 and it has some lingas (phallic symbol of Shiva) dating back more than 1,400 years.

Village of Nepal

Nepal is renowned for being a historic and scenic paradise for several tourists worldwide. This is even from the fact, that the land-locked Kingdom of Nepal congregates backpackers, river rafters, mountain climbers and even nature lovers each year in increased number. It is an ideal place to be, if you want to escape from the hustle-bustle of the chaotic contemporary lifestyle you may be experiencing. So, are you planning a vacation to Nepal? If you are nodding to a ‘YES’, then Nepal Magic can give you a helping hand.

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Natural life of Nepal

Nepal is one of the most spectacular countries on earth, inhabited by the most friendly and endearing people. For a country that lies 800 kilometres from the sea, it has a scenic and altitudinal variety that is quite unrivalled. It contains the highest mountains in the world, thundering rivers, magical montane forests and dense lowland jungles. The Kathmandu Valley - once the bed of a large and ancient lake - is now a colourful mosaic of rice paddies and quaint farmhouses surrounded by high forested hills supporting a fabulous range of exotic bird and mammal species including monkeys, Muntjac, Jungle Cat, Leopard and even Tiger. The bustling capital city combines medieval and modern in unique fashion and visitors will be fascinated by the beautiful pagoda-style Hindu temples, Buddhist stupas and elaborate royal palaces. The trekking opportunities to be found in Nepal are unrivalled. The majestic Himalaya range contains eight of the world's highest mountains, culminating in Mount Everest. Walking through magnificent forests of oak and rhododendrons beneath the towering white summits, one can understand why some claim this to be the most beautiful place on the planet.

Wednesday, December 17, 2008

Human Creature

In the world, we have find many animals. Among them human creature is most minded in all creatures. Human are doing all things.

‘Slaves in the Family’ is Still Eye-Opening

It’s been ten years since Edward Ball wrote his 1998 National Book Award-winning work Slaves in the Family. I just read it this week. It was amazing. Ball, 50, is a descendant of a long line of white, slave-owning South Carolinian plantation owners. Ball traces not only his family line, back to 1698, but he traces descendants of some of the slaves his family owned. The book is meticulously researched. He traveled around the eastern United States as well as to Sierra Leone in West Africa, where people who were eventually sold into slavery started their awful journey. Ball covers so much ground — literally and figuratively — that it is stunning. I highly recommend this amazing work. Have you read this book?
An article from The Atlantic on Edward Ball

Middle-Aged Guy Wins ‘Survivor Gabon’

The Mount Everest is the highest hill of world. It is lies in Nepal.
Bob Crowley, a 57-year-old Gorham, Maine, high-school physics teacher, has been declared the winner of CBS’s Survivor. Crowley is the oldest person ever to win the competition, which always involves physical discomfort and other icky stuff. I know the show is sort of silly, but I do feel some middle-aged, baby boomer pride in a guy who could beat out a bunch of much younger contestants. He won $1 million for his efforts. Host of Survivor Jeff Probst called Crowley one of the most likable winners in the show’s history. The show was shot in Gabon, a coastal African nation. Watch the video clip of Crowley winning Survivor.